Project Management is paramount for Permaculture Design

Recently I began a new job doing project management for a green energy company. As part of goals and ongoing training I decided to look into the Project Management Professional (PMP)® training.

The most important part of becoming one of these professionals is to be versed in all the aspects of managing projects, the language involved, and the processes. All of these aspects are explained in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) booklet. You can purchase the updated 2013 edition from their site or download the 2000 version from here. Most of the fundamental aspects of project management do not change from the versions and can serve as a good education for permaculture design projects.

Reading through this manual has been super instructive for me and has already helped me through defining phases within the permaculture design process, which has been one of the more difficult aspects of permaculture for me to grasp.

Grab a copy and see if it helps you as well.




Why I am moving from Google Earth Pro to QGIS

I’ve spent a lot of time developing an open source workflow for permaculture design. While, initially, I thought that Google Earth Pro was my ticket to professional level work, I slowly began to realize the limits that the platform has. I’ll admit, I spent all this time working on learning one type of GIS that I wanted it to be the one I could use until the end of time. But there are some pretty compelling reasons to use QGIS over Google Earth Pro if your goal is to do professional design work, and that is the subject of my article.

Updates and support

I’m fairly certain that Google has been developing their Google Earth Engine while GEP has been left on version 7.1 for years. QGIS on the other hand just came out with version 2.16, and is continuously developing their platform. It’s simply a matter of goals. I don’t think Google really ever wanted to create an ArcGIS alternative, and after using both GEP and QGIS I understand the vast differences in their user interface and capabilities.

File Type Support

This is a pretty straight forward benefit to using QGIS. It supports many more file types that you are going to encounter while doing geospatial analysis. Many data types on websites like CTECO (Connecticuts repository of GIS data) can be used in QGIS, while GEP cannot handle any of it. Take the shapefile, or SHP. Here is a file that needs to be converted to either one of the file types that GEP can support, KML or KMZ.

QGIS is meant to be an open source, high end software and thus understands the need to be able to open and use file types used by the dominant company in GIS: ESRI.


QGIS is adept in handling databases, something I am learning more about everyday. The beauty of databases is that when I create a shape to represent some data on site, for example a riparian buffer, I can create a table with information about that buffer such as seasonal flow, water quality tests, and what kind of species composition is contained within the buffer. I’ll be honest though, I haven’t quite figured out how to do what I just said, but I think it is within the realm of possibility.

Datums & Geolocation for everything

Everything you do on this platform will need to be marked geospatially. Because of this, the workflow that all stems from the master GIS file will be better streamlined. Also, due to the large numbers of plugins available and file types supported, you can export data from QGIS to the next step such as LibreCAD for some CAD work, all while maintaining GPS locations which will become helpful in the field.

Datums are quite possibly one of the primary reasons to switch over. A Datum is essentially a way of orientating the GPS coordinates, there are many, and to keep everything smooth you need to be aware or which datum you are working. The orthoimagery that I use works on the EPSG:2234 datum for example, while GEP only works on WGS84.

It all comes down to workflow, conversion, and goals

QGIS makes the professional open source workflow all that much better. There are many municipalities and governments investing in this technology and doing real world projects on the ground. To me, that signals that QGIS is the better choice for having the workflow be smoother and save time. It is just too much of a hassle to rely on third party apps to convert data from GEP to anything else that will be useful.

Though my one caveat is to not throw out the baby with the bathwater. GEP is a wonderful software and I have had happy clients who end up with the GEP file and can do what they need to do at their level. Most clients need to visualize and play with their data on the fly, GEP is perfect for that. For us other designers, who want to be taken seriously but don’t want to fork up the cash for the proprietary software, QGIS is a great option.

Site Specific Weather Station with Raspberry Pi [Briefing]

I’ve mentioned before that typically when one is first compiling information for site analysis, there is a sizable amount that does not come from the site. Data is typically aggregated for climate, landform, soils, plant systems and more. This is to say that there is always room for more specific data to be collected.

Last year I was surfing the web to look for ways of grabbing site specific data for climate. This journey eventually led me to a DIY weather station that could be run on Raspberry Pi. Luckily, there are robust sources available, and even the makers of raspberry pi are working on making some for sale. But, where’s the fun in that?

The instructable website offers a great blueprint for this project. For less than $300, one could build their own weather station with photo taking capability. It can measure precipitation, humidity, pressure, temperature, wind direction, and wind speed as well as provide time lapse worthy photos in order to make sense of all of that data in visual context.

Furthermore, this particular instructable includes its own software that runs on Python (so you can learn a little bit of that too!) and uses the Weather Underground API in order to obtain other data relative to the site that you would be hard pressed to measure on site scale.

There are a couple of adaptations I would like to make of course. Making the measuring components themselves I think will be the most simple part, a more challenging aspect will be to case them and to find more functions for the space that weather station takes up. Ultimately, I am thinking about building around 6 or 7 of these to put all around the 65 acre farm. While I could settle on having 7 weather stations, I can’t help but be pulled into a deeper process.

The question becomes, if I have a structure capable of capturing weather data and photos, what else should it be capable of doing? They are spread around, accessible, and stationary. What else could be built into these structures to truly maximize need on the farm?

I suspect answers will come as the process moves along. I have connected with the Western Mass Geek Group which has regular meetings on Tuesdays and has encyclopedic members. No doubt with the tools and help available I can make a more functional weather station, and aesthetic too!


Sun One Organic Farm Site Assessment Version 0.1

This is the Site A&A I worked on this fall at Sun One Organic Farm in Bethlehem, CT.  The goals of creating this document centered around education and creating a structure for easier site A&A and better observation of patterns on site.  I wanted to be able to communicate what was happening effectively with someone who had never observed the land through a permaculture lens before.

Rather than treat this document as a normal first to last page book, it is better treated as a series of ponds that the reader can choose to wade in or not.  Links direct the reader to supplemental documentation concerning certain aspects of the A&A.

The site A&A was based almost entirely on the Scale of Permanence found in Edible Forest Gardens. Here is a shareable copy.(ODT) All files below are PDF.





Legal Issues & Illustration

Access and Circulation

Vegetation and Wildlife & Plant List


Buildings and Infrastructure

Zones of Use

Soil Fertility and Management





Open-Source Permaculture Design: Intro to the Observation Workflow

Months ago I wrote a post about Open-Source Permaculture.  I introduced the programs and wrote briefly about their usage tied together with some stories and fluff.  For this post, I am going to provide an update to the material from the last post as well as begin to layout a workflow for the Open-Source Permaculture Designer (OSPD).

Updates on Software (9/30/15): Most up to date versions of previously mentioned software.

LibreCAD 2.0.8 (August 24th, 2015)

Inkscape 0.91 (January 28th, 2015)

GIMP 2.8

Google Earth Pro 7.1

Sketchup Make 2015

Scribus 1.5.0 (May 22nd, 2015)

Of course, I mentioned other software in the previous post, but I have been mostly using Google Earth Pro, Inkscape, and GIMP for my initial workflow dealing with site A&A.  I have heard calls from some in the community for a permaculture specific software, or accessing knowledge related to permaculture in a open-source way.  I think that these calls are valid and I hope to answer them in my own ways.

My ideal permaculture software is really a workflow of all of these other softwares.  When I look at the whole point of the design process, it is to get from observation to implementation and management.  That means for every aspect of the whole design process, I can fabricate a workflow that can produce a coherent and organized final product.  Let’s begin.


Observation can come in two different flavors…indirect or direct.  I won’t belabor the efficacy of either flavor of observation, but the way that each is recorded and utilized is unique and this is the first aspect of the workflow.

-Indirect Observation-

I’m discussing indirect observation first because it will most likely be the most robust source of most information on a site before even stepping foot on it.  Generally speaking, indirect observations are from secondary or tertiary sources;  you didn’t do it.  The bulk of this information comes from a variety of sources like the NOAA, USDA, and USGS.  Climate, landform, and soil info can come from these sources.  Beyond this there are countless sources for soil science, species identification, species utilitarian value and more.  Maps are an important form of indirect observation.  Survey maps, soil maps, geological maps, maps that show water locations, topography maps and etc will all fit here.

-Direct Observation-

These are things that you personally observe and interpret in your own unique way.  We all tend to focus on different aspects of experience, there is simply too much to take in all at once.  At any given sliver of time, a group of 5 people in the same general area may record observations on some sort of spectrum from exactly the same to completely different.

Anyway, how does one incorporate direct observation into the OSPD workflow?  I like Google Earth Pro (GEP) for this one.  I will do a full length tutorial on this soon enough.  The beauty of GEP is the tools that are available and the way that the tools work.  I can create polygons and lines that demarcate, on satellite,  different parts of a given site.  Furthermore, I can add text and descriptions to the shapes I draw in GEP.  A dialog box will pop up when clicking on shapes.

A real time saver is that if I have had a survey done, I can put in the GPS coordinates and start out right off the bat with my site boundaries on GEP.

So essentially, all direct observations can be recorded with shapes and descriptions on GEP.  This makes it a quick and powerful tool for taking experiences of the day and recording them for later design use.  Keep vigilant though, there is a pitfall of analysis paralysis here.  The point of direct observation in permaculture is not to have a large archival repository of individual observations, the point is to have relevance of observations and attempt to distill patterns from them.  The other point is to have information in context that can inform design in the future.

Verbal Representations (VeR)

After observation comes representation and communication, with verbal communication being the next logical step.  Observations need to be in a streamlined and coherent package.  This is where some sort of publication comes in, or a working document.  The working document needs to be able to communicate direct and indirect observations of the site in a coherent/organized manner.

Direct– Time is a major factor in the organization of the document, the time that the observations occur is really important.  Location is another major factor, a lot of observations are tied in with a specific location, and can be organized in this way.  Biological individuals/groups are another major factor.  Some observations are tied to a specific species and their behavior in interaction with another.  For example, if I observe that birds are making their nests in a particular kind of shape on the facade of a building, I may be able to design a similar shape to make housing and encourage that species.  These major factors effectively fulfill who, what, where, when, how, and eventually why.

Direct observation can be done in different ways as well.  It can be done in a directed or non-directed way.  For example, if I want to understand the changes of the season more, I can embark on a phenological study, eliciting patterns of seasonal change ultimately.  Non-directed, obviously, is just experience that you pay attention to for whatever reason and deem as important enough to record.

Indirect-More or less, indirect observation is an easier thing to represent visually.  A lot of the information from indirect sources is fairly stable.  Things like climate, landform, soils, water, and plant communities remain stable beyond human lifespans.  One can create a document and be secure in the fact that a lot of the information will not change until site specific information is gathered.

Visual Representation (ViR)

Basic yet undeniably unique in it’s representative power.  Verbal representations are quite weak in how they can connect someone to the subject matter.  The context of text is limited in its explanatory power.  Think, if all textbooks had strictly just text, you wouldn’t nor couldn’t really grasp a lot of the concepts contained within.

The visual representations can be educational, artistic, and most importantly as resources to inform design and implementation.  For all the sophistication and uses of Google Earth Pro, it looks ugly, no offense.  With GIMP and Inkscape, one can make much more compelling illustrations to convey the data cleanly and easily.

If you’ve read Ben Falk’s book “Resilient Farm and Homestead”, you know what I am talking about.  The illustrations in the book are really nice, and convey information real easily while displaying a clean look.

Observation Workflow Overview (2 Flows)

Direct Observation>Verbal Representation>Visual Representation>Working Document

Indirect Observation>Verbal Representation>Visual Representation>Working Document

Software – Google Earth Pro+Open Office+Inkscape+GIMP+Scribus+LibreCAD

Observation Workflow Broken Down

Direct Observation>Google Earth Pro (VeR&ViR)>Open Office(VeR)>GIMP (ViR) or LibreCAD(ViR)>Inkscape(ViR)>Finished ViR product.

Indirect Observation>Open Office(VeR)>GIMP (ViR)>Inkscape(ViR)>Finished ViR product.